It is a basic method of producing machine parts, devices and other functional objects and articles. It consists of giving the object specific shape, dimensions, and special characteristics of the outer layer by removing a part of the material with machine cutting.
- MILLING – nowadays it is a very common metal processing method. It uses a rotational tool – milling cutter, which is able to move inside or along the processed material in almost every direction. It is a highly reliable and qualitative method as it uses tools with exchangeable fully-carbide hotplates and very often it substitutes for grinding, electro-erosive processing. Moreover, it also allows processing of highly hardened elements.
- TURNING (LATHING) – it enables production of cylinder-shaped objects usually with the use of a single-blade tool which is motionless in comparison with the turning object.
- BORING – it is done with the use of turning tools on a machining centre or a boring machine. It is used for processing and alteration of provisionally processed openings by casting, forging, boring and cutting. The turning tool is inserted into the opening axially. The vast majority of the openings goes through the whole object. The quality of the realisation is found from the IT9 to IT6 quality conformance class. The surface coarseness Ra achieves better than 1 micrometer value.
- DRILLING – it covers the way of processing cylinder-shaped openings. The modern tools enable drilling in one operation without making initial centre holes or feed holes. The quality of the openings is usually so good that there is no need of further processing.
- BEVELLING (edge bending) – it is making a phase by removing extra material on the edge of a detail (product). Usually it is done by machining with the use of drill bits, turning tools, files and special electric-gas devices.